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The Tools of Printing UKIYO-E

Wednesday, December 10, 2014 11:50:52 AM Asia/Tokyo

The Tools of Printing UKIYO-E

 

Several tools are especially important to print ukiyo-e on paper. These tools have enabled the ukiyo-e printers to complete their works while sitting from the Edo Period.

 

Hake and Brush

 

The Edo Period ukiyo-e printers only used the Japanese traditional brush, hake, to apply the inks on the woodblock. The craftspeople cut firm horsetail into 4~5cm length pieces and make a hake. Because of the material, the new hake is so firm that it will damage the woodblock and create uneven ukiyo-e. Therefore, the craftspeople of hake have to improve the tool with sharkskin. The sharkskin makes it smoothly curved. On the other hand, the modern ukiyo-e printers use both a hake and a modern soft brush. The new tool allows them to spread ink evenly on the woodblock; the traditional hake enables them to make color gradations in their pictures. However, they can`t use ink effectively with a hake because inks easily enter among bristles of it. That`s why the modern printers use both tools. In addition, the painters use the other kinds of brushes according to the certain purposes. For example, mizubake is a 17-centimeter-wide brush that moisturizes the paper to let the paper absorb inks easily. Another example is a 40-centimeter-wide brush, dosahake. The printers used it to paint the special liquid dosa all over their finished artwork, which prevents inks from bleeding on the picture. They can use the liquid effectively with the brush because they can adjust the density of 3~4-centimeter bristles of it by themselves, so.

 

Baren

 

As ukiyo-e was becoming popular, the ukiyo-e printers improved the unique tool, baren. They use baren to press the paper onto the woodblock and let the paper absorb inks. The traditional baren is made from layers of paper, circular steel, and bamboo leaves. The craftspeople wrap the layer and the steel in a bamboo leaf. Then, they twist the ends of a leaf and knot them. Although the construction of it is simple, it took more than one mouth to create the layer of paper. Therefore, there used to be stores that sold baren in the past. However, the modern printers have to create baren by themselves because there is no store today. Although there is difference in how barens are acquired, both the old and modern printers must fix the tool by themselves. Therefore, fixing baren is one of their most important tasks. The quality of baren displays the skill of the printer.

 

Tokibou (hakobi)

 

Tokibou is the small brush made from a wet bamboo leaf. The printer uses it to mix colors, and put colors on the woodblock or the hake. In addition, they make tokibou by themselves. First, they cut a hard part of bamboo into 6-centimeter lengths and let the piece soak in water for about 30 minutes. Next, they break the 2-centimeter head of the piece into fibers with a wooden hammer. Finally, they use a string to connect it with a small bamboo stick.

 

Bokashi

 

Bokashi is one of the unique ukiyo-e techniques of color gradation. The technique can show a sense of perspective and third dimension in the picture. The printers usually make a gradation from dark color to subtle color. There are several techniques of bokashi.

 

Ita bokashi (the gradation method of carving woodblocks)

 

Wood-carvers usually carve deeply to define the boundary between colors, but they sometimes create 0.4-centimeter gentle slopes in their woodblock to grade the boundary softly.That is the technique of wood-carvers, ita bokashi. There are several steps in the technique. First, they carve deeply. Then, they cut the edge of the boundary at an angle toward the bottom of the groove with a knife or a bent knife, aisuki. Finally, they polish the cutting surface and adjust the angle of the surface with a scouring rush plant, tokusa. Although ita bokashi is mainly the wood-carver`s work, only skillful printer can create beautiful color gradation of ita bokashi.

 

Fuki bokashi (the gradation method of wiping)

 

Another technique of gradation is fuki bokashi. There are many types of fuki bokashi. The first technique is fukisage bokashi. It means the gradation method of wiping from the top to the bottom. The printers often use fukisage bokashi to show the immensity of the sky. They make a subtle color gradation on the woodblock, and then they put dark color on the top of the block. After that, they create one gradation from dark color to subtle color. The next one is fukiage bokashi. It`s the opposite of fukiage bokashi: the printers make the gradation from the bottom to the top. The final one is kata bokashi they wipe an ink line and make gradation. This technique enables the printers to create curve and diagonal gradations. Kata bokashi includes hitomonji bokashi and atenashi bokashi

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Hitomonji bokashi (the gradation method of the form of one)

 

Hiroshige Utagawa, the master of ukiyo-e, often used hitomonji bokashi to paint the skies of The Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido. hitomonji bokashi literally looks like the form of the kanji of one (一), a horizontal line. Hiroshige had to express endless sky in the 2-centimeter upper part of his works because almost all his works are about 24-centimeter-lengths. Therefore, he effectively used the technique. As a result, his work became one of the most popular landscape style in the art history. The steps of hiitomonji bokashi are simple. First, the printers draw a centimeter horizontal line in a color ink at the top of the paper, and then they moisten the a centimeter line blow the ink line. After that, they press the paper with baren. As a result, the ink bleeds toward the bottom of the paper and it makes a beautiful gradation. The technique needs drawing a straight line because a distorted line blurs color boundary too much. Therefore, a wrong line can negatively affect the composition of ukiyo-e.

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Tools for UKIYO-E

Thursday, November 6, 2014 11:28:52 AM Asia/Tokyo

Tools for UKIYO-E

 

[Caving]

 

Kogatana (Knife)

 

Kogatana is the most important tool. It is a tool to carve the woodblock for the first time. The skill of technique for this cut edge appears directly in the woodblock print. The 2 types of blade width 0.6 cm and 0.45 cm are common. For the angle of blade edge, there are the sharp angle and the blunt angle. The sharp angle is made up for the thinning of the blade edge by the thickness, so it is suitable for the fine part or the point (For example, landscape). The blade edge of blunt angle is widish, so it is suitable for the straight line or curving line (For example, portrait).

Maru Nomi (Chisel for round part)

 

There are 2 types of blade depth, big : 1.2 cm and small : 0.6 cm. Maru Nomi, it is a tool to remove the unwanted part being 2 cm from the cut edge by Kogatana. Maru Nomi is used by gripping the handle with left hand turning around the back of hand, by holding the wooden hammer with right hand and by beating the head of handle with it. In order to remove around the edge accurately, it is removed with 1.2 cm of Maru Nomi along the lines of blade edge carved by Kogatana, and the tight part is removed with 0.6 cm of small Maru Nomi.

 

Soai Nomi (Chisel with round chamfered blade edge)

 

There are 2 types of blade depth, big : 2.5cm and small : 1.2cm (popular name : Kesho Nomi). Soai Nomi 2.5cm in depth, it is a tool to carve the outside part removed by Maru Nomi deeply and widely. It is used for the wide area not to remain the traces of Baren when rubbing and for the deep area not to attach the paintings on the unwanted part.

 

Aisuki (Chisel to remove the part between lines and faces)

 

Aisuki, it is a finishing tool to remove the line 0.2 cm around the cut edge that remains after carving the wide area. There are 4 types of blade width, 0.6 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.3 cm, and 0.15 cm. The blade edge is made round by chamfer the both ears. The carver removes all area that can be removed with the blade width 0.6 cm of Aisuki. When he/she remove the fine area that cannot be removed, he/she changes the tool in series according to the area.

 

Wooden Hammer (Kizuchi)

 

There are 2 types of Kizuchi for Maru Nomi and Soai Nomi. Because Kizuchi for Maru Nomi is requested to help the free movement along the blade edge of Kogatana, so medium size is used. Because Kizuchi for Soai Nomi is requested the sufficient strong power to remove the wide area deeply, so large size Kizuchi or heavy hammer is used.

 

Hangi (Woodblock)

 

Since Edo period through to the present day, Cherry wood (Mountain Cherry like Yama Zakura or Hon Zakura) has been used. The nature of Cherry wood that the difference between hardness and softness is small is suited for the carver to carve the fine lines or the small points. And, with the advantage that Cherry wood is not easily damaged on the carving line parts, the uneven color print density is disappeared because the holes on the wood surface are delicate. Because it also withstands repeated water exposure, if it is rubbed by Hake or Brush, the reduction of Hangi is small. In addition, the supply is easy because it is close to us regardless of fields and mountains. The thickness of wood is enough to use for the several ranges of the intended purposes of Hangi. The craftsmen cut down the trees that have been living for several decades and start to make Hangi after drying them for a few years.
The Carver measures the size of a ordered painting, calculates the finished dimension of Hangi, examines the number of colors needed to finish Hangi, and decides the number of Hangi. Depending on an order by the carver, the craftsman of wood plates cuts the dried wood plates in accordance with the specified size. The wood plates are classified in accordance with their each purposes, the hard wood plates for main printing (wood block for black ink), the soft wood plates for Tsubushi (painting with one color in a large area like a sky, etc...) and the normal wood plates for Color wood block. After that, the required number of wood plates are delivered to the carver. The all wood plates for woodblock are finished by cutting smooth as if the both sides are just mirror surface. So it is a essential technique for the craftsman of wood plates that he can complete the sharpening smoothly with a plane of single blade for any grain, with the grain / into the grain.

 

Omo-han (Main wood block)

 

Based on the planning by the publisher, the painter makes a clean copy of the frame for woodblock printing on the thin paper, Mino-shi (one of Japanese paper) with black ink line (this work is called Hanshita). Hanshita is put on Hangi ao as to paste a face of picture and Hangi together. First of all, the carver only carves the black ink lines, after that, he carves the woodblocks for color printing of each color (Color wood block) according to instructions by painter, and the printer complete the printing using these Hangi. Omo-han represents not only the lines of general drawing on the original picture. The lines of them, one by one, are carved so as to emphasize more the expression than the lines drawn by brush. Because the completion depends on these carved lines on Omo-han largely, the carving on Omo-han is said to be the most important work.
The production of Iro-han (color woodblock) after that needs “Kyogo Zuri” printed by this Omo-han. In addition, Hanshita that a painter draws directly is said to be a original picture of woodblock printing, but Hanshita disappears after finishing the carving of Omo-han.

 

Kyogo Zuri (Copy printed from Omo-han)

 

After finishing Omo-han, it starts to produce Iro-han (color woodblock). In the case of Ukiyo-e woodblock printing, the production of Iro-han is based on the black ink lines on Omo-han, so Kyogo zuri is necessary as Hanshita for Iro-han. Kyogo zuri, it is that the carver makes by printing Omo-han for himself. The carver reproduces the black ink lines on Omo-han (including 2 points of Kento) precisely, and prints the required number as Hanshita for Iro-han (normally about 20 sheets). The painter indicates the color-coding by red on these Kyogo Zuri with the coloring of a completion picture in mind, and returned them to the carver. The color-coding is designed so as to obtain a maximum effect with a minimum number of colors, so it is one of the important works for the painter. After the repeat printing of Iro-han carved with color-coding of each color, the intended coloring by the painter is reproduced.

 

Kento (Mark for the repeat printing)

 

Compared with the black ink lines printed by Omo-han (woodblock for black ink), so as to repeat printing the colors precisely using Iro-han (woodblock for color), there is not a bit of difference between Omo-han and Iro-han, a essential technique or device given on Hangi is “Kento”. Based on the principle that the colors can be repeated printing when 3 fixed points on Hangi and the right angle / the horizontality on the paper correspond, “Kento” of Ukiyo-e woodblock printing is designed their positions and a way of marking, moreover a way of the actual work is a simple and efficient.
For “Kento”, there are “Kagi Mae Kento”shaped L,“Kagi no Ji Gata”and “Hikitsuke Kento shaped -, only one line. Putting Hangi rectangularly, “Kagi Mae Kento” is marked on the lower right part and “Hikitsuke Kento” is marked on the lower left part, two third of overall length of Hangi. Of course all“Kento”s on Iro-han are carved on the same position, and by these “Kento”s and the right angle / the horizontality on the paper finished precisely, the multicolored printing became possible.
It took several decades to complete “Kento”, but this simple and precise way is used until now without changing.

 

Iro-han (Color woodblock)

 

Iro-han, it is a woodblock for color printing in order to paint by the repeat printing of colors on the multicolored woodblock printing. Iro-han are carved each color on separate woodblocks. The painter indicates the using color by red on each part of Kyogo Zuri. These Kyogo Zuri are returned to the carver, they are put on Hangi ao as to paste a face of picture and Hangi together, and the Iro-han are carved. The sorting of Hangi for Iro-han is one of the works of the carver. From among Hangi delivered from the craftsman for wood plates, the carver classify in accordance with their each purposes, the most soft and good grain Hangi is for Iro-han painted in large area like a sky in the landscape picture, the hard and bad grain Hangi is for Iro-han painted in small area or deep colored area. Sometimes the different colors are carved separately on one Hangi for saving Hangi. For Ukiyo-e woodblock printing, several Iro-han are necessary in accordance with the color’s light and shade nevertheless one same color. There are techniques of printing like “Kakeawase” to appear the another color by painting the different colors on the same area, “Bokashi Zuri” to repeat printing several times on the large area by the same Iro-han, and etc... The number of Iro-han is often different from the actual number of times for printing.

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Posted in Top Art Japan By JBO Support

Techniques of UKIYO-E

Friday, October 31, 2014 12:01:52 PM Asia/Tokyo

Techniques of UKIYO-E



27991: Shower on Ohashi Bridge at Atake (UTAGAWA Hiroshige)

 

“Atenashi Bokashi”

This is a technique to create the gradation such as the clouds floating on the sky or the water surface. Just like the normal gradation technique, a printer moistens the woodblock, Hangi, with wet rag and puts the paints on it by Hake. It is able to produce various shapes by moving Hake as if a printer draws those shapes. Hangi remains flat because these shapes for the gradation are not carved on it. This is a high technique that only experienced printers can do, so it is also their chances to show their skills. “Shower on Ohashi Bridge at Atake” is highly evaluated as a representative work of 100 Famous Views of Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei) by not only the great ability to compose as Block print but also a technique for printing “Atenashi Bokashi” in the sky represented irregular curves with the carving for the lines of rain.

 

27993 : Suidobashi Bridge and Surugadai

27997 : Fireworks Display at Ryogoku

 

“Kira Zuri”

This is a technique to produce effects like a color silver by using mica, mineral powder of hexagonal shape. For “Kira Zuri”, there are three kinds of techniques “Oki Kira”, “Maki Kira”and “Suri Kira”. As a unique character of “100 Famous Views of Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei)”, “Kira Zuri” is in heavy usage partially for the dark section among others in the work, unlike “Oki Kira” on the large area such as the background by Utamaro or Sharaku. Mica was printed on the scales on the back of a carp in “Suidoubashi Bridge and Surugadai”, on the other side of river in “Fireworks Display at Ryogoku” and so on. This is a technique “Suri Kira”, slightly different usage of Kira. In these works, “Kira Zuri”was given by mixing Kira into paintings.

 

27996 :Suijin Woods and Masaki on the Sumida River Banks

27999 :Asakusa Paddy Field and Torinomachimoude

 

“Kimedashi”

This is a Technique of embossing in order to show the semi-three-dimension by lifting up the surface of paper. It is to crave deeper than usual the part where the artist wants to get effect, to pressure this hollow part by pushing from the back of the paper, and to raise the surface of the picture (printed face). This technique can not be given for the fine lines or for the extremely small area, but this is used for the part where the artist wants to represent the gentle voluminousness.
In these two works, the roundness of the back of a cat and the petals of cherry were raised. “Eri Ita (Block to carve)” is carved deeply to be hollow-ground like a depthless cake molds. The inside is polished by Tokusa to be smooth.
This time, it was raised by tapping the back of the wet paper with a well-used Hake or Brush. There are some theory that this technique was given by the rubber ball, the rubber eraser or the elbow in those days.

 

27998 : Kanda-Konyacho

 

“Nunome Zuri”

This is a technique to copy the grain on a paper, and this grain is gotten from the cloth put on the woodblock, Hangi . Just like a embossing technique “Kara Zuri” to print by carving that shape on the woodblock, Hangi, any painting is not applied to it. Because the normal soft cloth cannot be represented the shape, the hard and open weave cloth such as the summer gauze is suitable for “Nunome Zuri”. For the reprint at this time, it was achieved by using “Meibutsu Retsu Takeya-cho”, the reproduced cloth in 200 years ago.
For “Nunome Zuri”, the paintings are not used from the first. It is printed by wetting the paper in order to represent the unevenness shapes of grain on the paper. Difficult to distinguish it when the paper dries, but it was effective in Edo period when the people appreciated Ukiyo-e easily in hand. The piece goods in “Kanda-Konyacho” are represented by “Nunome Zuri” for the cloths of paper.

 

28000 : Night at Saruwakacho

 

“Surinuki and Hariawase”

The woodblock print, Ukiyo-e was a thing that the common people enjoyed, so it was very cheap in those days. The publisher, who was creator at the same time, aimed to create more highly-attractive works with a small number of colors and also made all kinds of efforts during the production process. For the method to use effectively the woodblocks, Hangi, there are techniques, "Surinuki” and "Hariawase”.
“Surinuki” : For this work, three color blocks are carved. In case each printing areas are away, several areas of different colors are carved on the same color block this way in order to use one color block effectively. The green area is carved for the partition on the second floor of Morita-za in the right foreground, and the red area is carved for the lantern on the same color block. Unlike “Hariawase”, “Surinuki” is printed with reference to the same mark, “Kento”.
“Hariawase” : For this color block, two different color areas are caved on the same color block with 2 “Kento” on the both side of the woodblock, Hangi. Kimono of a woman attracting customers to Morita-za is carved on the blue area, and the gradation at the head of the short split curtain is carved on the brown area. The blue area is printed with reference to the same “Kento” as the other color block. The brown area is printed with reference to the added “Kento” that is carved newly. In this way, by the ingenuity to carve the different color areas separately on the same color block, the number of woodblocks, Hangi, can be minimized.

 

"Itame Zuri and Goma Zuri”

A rubbing technique named from the condition of the rubbing completion. “Goma Zuri”is a completion of rubbing that there are uneven print densities at the first glance, as if the sesames are sprinkled when it is finished to rub. The pressure of Baren is impaired.
“Itame Zuri” is rubbed stronger the pressure of Baren than the normal “Tsubushi Zuri”, so the wood grain of the woodblock, Hangi, is represented beautifully. For the first print of “Night at Saruwakacho”, the wood grain is represented clearly in the night sky. For this work, it was made an attempt to print in order to make full use of the wood grain.
For the night sky between “Ten Bokashi” and navy blue“Fuki Bokashi”in the depth, “Itame Zuri” is more effective than “Tsubushi”, to fill the this area with one color. It is natural that the wood grain is varied according to the woodblock, Hangi, so it is different from that for the first print.

 

28002 : Kinryuzan Sensoji Temple

 

“Kara Zuri”

 

A embossing technique to make the colorless unevenness on the paper. Without painting on the woodblock, Hangi, by rubbing stronger than usual with a harsh twisted thread Baren, the carved shape on the woodblock, Hangi, is copied on the paper. This is a unique technique of Ukiyo-e. You can not distinguished it at a distance, but if you pick up this work and look closely at it, you can enjoy the effect.

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Posted in Top Art Japan By JBO Support

Kabuki 歌舞伎 (Japanese classical theater)

Monday, October 20, 2014 1:20:40 PM Asia/Tokyo

“Kabuki” is a classical Japanese particular dance-drama and one of Traditional Japanese theatre includes Noh, Kyogen and Bunraku. “Kabuki” is well known for the stylization of it’s dance, song, colorful costumes, heavy makeup, and lively movements in a play to tell the stories.



“Kabuki” is a Japanese language word and consists of 3 characters “Sing (歌), “Dance (舞) and “Skill (伎)”. Therefore “Kabuki” is sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing". But these are “Ateji (phonetic equivalent)” characters which do not reflect actual etymology. The Kanji of “Skill” generally refers to a performer in “Kabuki” theatre. Because the word “Kabuki” is believed to derive from the verb “Kabuku”, meaning “to lean” or “to be out of the ordinary”. “Kabuki” can be interpreted as “Avant-garde” or “Bizzarre” theatre. The expression “Kabukimono” referred originally to those who were bizarrely dressed and swaggered on a street.

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Yukata 浴衣 (Japanese Bathrobe or Casual Summer Kimono)

Wednesday, October 15, 2014 10:15:52 AM Asia/Tokyo

The word "Yukata" comes from the word "Yu (bath)" and "Katabira (under-clothing)". Literally it means “bathing clothes”. Originally it was designed to wear after bathing but later adopted for casual wearing. “Yukata” is a casual version of the traditional Japanese dress “Kimono”. Usually it is made of cotton, wrapped around the body and fastened with a sash. Traditionally, “Yukata” is worn after bathing in a public bath, especially in the hot springs, quickly absorbing the remaining moisture but now their use is not limited to after-bath wear. “Yukata” are typically made of cotton with straight seams and roomy sleeves. It is light in weight with very simple structure that gives a sense of relaxation when wore. People like it because of its convenience and ventilation feature. Being a very comfortable dress, many people wear it as a casual dress or a nightdress during the hot and humid Japanese summer. They also love wearing ‘Yukata’ at fireworks displays and other traditional festivals in summer. Traditional Japanese inns also provide “Yukata” to be worn after bathing.

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Noh 能 (Japanese classic drama)

Wednesday, September 24, 2014 2:36:41 PM Asia/Tokyo

Noh 能 (Japanese classic drama)

 

‘Noh’ is a Japanese word and its literal meaning is "skill" or "talent". It is a unique Japanese form of theater very different from the western theater in style, story and presentation. There are no directors, producers or designers, as the play is performed according to already set outlines. It is a blend of dance, drama, music and poetry into one highly artistic stage art. The hero is often a supernatural being who takes on human form to narrate a story. He covers his face with specially designed masks for the roles of gods, ghosts, evil spirits and women etc. ‘Noh’ actors do not show any dramatic actions as in other theaters. They do not speak, rather tell the story through their artistic movements, singing, musical accompaniment and dance. Unlike Western theater, ‘Noh’ performers are simply storytellers who use their visual appearances by wearing masks and costumes and their movements to suggest the tale rather than to enact it. The language of ‘Noh’ plays is beautiful and poetic, and the singing style is very distinctive.

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Posted in Japanese Culture By JBO Support

Bushido “Way of the Warrior”

Friday, August 1, 2014 1:56:46 PM Asia/Tokyo

Bushido 武士道 “Way of the Warrior”

 "Bushido" comes from the word ‘bushi’, which means "warrior" and the word ‘do’ means "the way". So "Bushido" means, "the way of the warrior." Briefly “Bushido” is the code of moral rules, which the Japanese warriors or ‘Samurai’ were required to observe. In today’s Japan those warriors or ‘Samurai’ no more exist, but the philosophy of “Bushido” does. So it is essential to know about “Bushido” to understand Japanese culture.

 The warriors or ‘Samurai’ were the members of the Japanese feudal military aristocracy from the 11th to the 19th centuries. “Bushido” was an unwritten code of life for Japanese Samurai (warriors), very similar to the medieval knights of Europe, demanding absolute loyalty to a warrior's master and obedience and valuing honor above life. In this sense "Bushido" is also referred as “Samurai spirit”. "Bushido" is the ethical code made up of seven moral principles, which the samurai were required to strictly follow....

 

Bushido 武士道 "Le code de Samuraî"

 "Bushido" vient du mot «bushi», qui signifie «guerrier» et le mot «do» signifie «la voie». Donc "Bushido" signifie "la voie du guerrier." En bref "Bushido" est le code des règles morales, que les guerriers japonais ou 'Samuraî' ont été demandés d’obserber. Au Japon d'aujourd'hui, ces guerriers ou 'Samurai' ne existent plus, mais la philosophie de "Bushido" existe. Il est donc essentiel de connaître "Bushido" pour comprendre la culture japonaise.

 Les guerriers ou «Samurai» étaient les membres de l'aristocratie militaire féodale japonaise du 11ème au 19ème siècles. "Bushido" était un code non écrit de vie des Samouraï (guerriers) japonais, très semblable aux chevaliers médiévaux de l'Europe, exigeant une loyauté absolue à la maîtrise et l'obéissance d'un guerrier et évaluant plus le honneur que la vie. En ce sens, "Bushido" est également désigné «l'esprit Samouraï". "Bushido" est le code d'éthique composé de sept principes moraux, que les samouraï étaient demandés de suivre strictement...

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Japanese Martial Arts

Thursday, June 19, 2014 5:26:04 PM Asia/Tokyo

Budo 武道 (Japanese martial arts)

Literally, "Budo" means the "Martial Way", and the term in a wider perspective describes to study the skills of Japanese Martial arts as a path to self-improvement so that the overall human character becomes stronger and is able to contribute to the society and ultimately benefits all people living in any region of the world.......

 

Budo 武道 (Les Arts martiaux japonais)

Littéralement, "Budo" veut dire "voie martiale", et le terme dans une perspective plus large décrit pour étudier les compétences d'arts martiaux japonais comme voie vers l'auto-amélioration pour que le caractère global des hommes devienne plus forte et it puisse contribuer à la la société et, finalement, profiter à tous les gens vivant dans n'importe quelle région du monde......

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